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Paleolithic of Eurasia & Alaska
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Journey Through
the Ice Age

Guide to Iditarod

Paleolithic Era | Paleolithic People | Siberia & Eurasia | Peopling Americas

The Chukchi, native people of the far northeast Siberian region called Chukotka, are linked genetically to Upper Paleolithic or Ice Age people of Eurasia. Archaeological research in northern Eurasia and in Beringia - the area from the Lena River in Siberia to Alaska and the Yukon in North America - gives insights on origins of the Chukchi, the neighboring Koryak and Siberian Eskimo, and on the peopling of the New World.

Here are online resources from archaeological research in Eurasia, Siberia and Alaska, useful in exploring the origins of the Chukchi.

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Clink link to order Antler on the Sea
Antler on the Sea:
The Yup'ik and Chukchi of the
Russian Far East


Chukchi & Other People of Siberia   [ Top ]

The Chukchi: a Siberian people "rich in reindeer" who came to the Bering Strait region after the Eskimo people

Chukchi & their Neighbors: what anthropology and history tell us about the Chukchi, Koryak, Siberian Eskimo, from WorkingDogWeb

Chukchi Origins: what recent genetic research tells us, through scientific papers on mtDNA and Y chromosome research, from WorkingDogWeb

Peoples of the Russian North and Far East:  resources about the North Pacific peoples including the Chukchi, Koryak, Evenki and more

Red Book of the Peoples of the Russian Empire: info on 85 peoples of Russia and Siberia, Chukchi, Koryak, Itelmen, Eskimo, Yukagir, Evenks

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In Search of
Ice Age

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Exploring the
Ice Age


Clink link to order The Palaeolithic of Siberia
The Paleolithic
of Siberia


Clink link to order Drawing Shadows to Stone
Drawing Shadows
to Stone


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A Brain for All
Seasons: Human
Evolution and
Abrupt Climate


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Ascent of Mind:
Ice Age Climates
and the Evolution
of Intelligence


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The Last


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The Dawn of
Human Culture


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The Journey of
Man:  A Genetic


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The Shaman's Coat:
A Native History
of Siberia


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Ainu: Spirit of a Northern People


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Arctic Adaptations:
Native Whalers &
Reindeer Herders
of Northern Eurasia


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First Fish, First
People: Salmon Tales
of the North
Pacific Rim

Story of the Ainu,
Ulchi, Nivkh,Salish,
Makah, Spokane
and more


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American Beginnings:
The Prehistory and
of Beringia


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The First Americans:
In Pursuit of Archaeology's Greatest Mystery


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After the Ice Age:
The Return of Life
to Glaciated
North America


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Prehistoric America:
A Journey Through
the Ice Age
and Beyond


Environment, History for Upper Paleolithic Era   [ Top ]

Circumpolar History Timetables: series of charts showing climate changes, glacial and interglacial periods, human developments and migrations for Eurasia and North America from 140,000 BP to the present.

Paleolithic Eras & Art: the Lower, Middle and Upper Paleolithic periods explained; cave paintings, ivory sculptures, stone and bone tools pictured, and the dates of the Paleolithic periods and archaeological timelines

Land Environments around the Globe: maps, text show changes in forests, deserts, tundra, more, during glacial and interglacial periods, including maps of Eurasia & Siberia over the past 150,000 years.

The Great Climate Flip Flop: how climate changes abruptly into Ice Age conditions and back, and the influence on human evolution, plus another version of the climate article with added maps and charts

Paleolithic Peoples & Culture 
  [ Top ]

First Migration of a Homo Species Out of Africa: 1.7 million year old fossils found in Republic of Georgia similar to those from Kenya

Origins of Modern Humans: Out of Africa or Multiregional? two main theories explored in depth by Donald Johanson, discoverer of "Lucy"

Early modern humans: they differ from Neanderthals, plus two theories on human origins - "out of Africa" and multi-regional - and much more on early modern human culture & art in Europe, Africa, and a look at archaic homo sapiens or Neanderthals

Modern Humans & Neanderthals: a comparison, plus a how Homo sapiens sapiens have thrived in many ecosystems, plus a look at characteristics of  modern humans, Neanderthals, including speech and thought

Modern Humans First Left Africa Via a Southern Route: early people left 80,000 years ago on a passage to India, then to Asia and Europe

Battle over the emergence of modern humans in Eurasia: good summary of the opposing theories basic on genetics or on human fossils

Modern Human Origins & Neanderthal Extinctions in the Levant: these two peoples competed for the Levant until 47,000 BP, with map

When Humans Became Human: were Europe's Cro-Magnons the first with modern behavior? what of the people of Blombos Cave in South Africa?

Early Modern Human Culture: including illustrations of Paleolithic tool types, the first needles, cave art, portable art such as “Venus figurines"

Paleolithic Art from the Danube to Lake Baikal: Eurasian art of a warm phase 25,000-20,000 BP, Finno-Ugrian origins, with charts of changing temperatures, maps of glaciers, art images including cave bear, and more on Paleolithic Art of Siberia with ivory sculptures of women, birds [PDF]

Human & Cultural Evolution: fine motor skills, complex tools requiring preplanning, and grammatical language may have evolved together

Rock Art & Archaeology: important evidence from caves, and an introduction to the art of Chavet Cave in France

Migrations of Paleolithic People & Later   [ Top ]

Paleolithic Exploration & Exploitation: why humans migrated to new regions

Journey of Man: geneticist Spencer Wells traces human migrations

Origins & Spread of Modern Humans: including the Upper Paleolithic

Tracking the Sexes by their Genes:  differences in gender migrations, with evidence of males arriving without females [Science log-on needed]

First Europeans: migrations brought the first early modern humans into Europe from Central Asia and the Middle East some 40,000 years ago

Upper Paleolithic in Eastern Europe & Russia & Siberia

Paleolithic in Eurasia & Siberia   [ Top ]

Archaeology of Siberia: key sites such as Mal'ta & Buret near Irkutsk, with rich finds, more on Malta, Tolbaga in Transbaikal, Dyuktai Culture

Archaeological Sites in Siberia: map with 27 sites including Mal'ta and Buret with remains of dwellings, tools and art, and Berelekh, a mammoth cemetary with a human "stand" or site nearby

Archaeological Sites of Northern Asia - Paleolithic: with a map, sites listed with latitude & longitude and a searchable database of dates

Siberian Paleolithic's well known sites such as Kara Bom, 43,000 BP;
Mal'ta and Buret, dated to 23,000 BP, Studenoe 2 to 17,900 BP

Early & Middle & Upper Paleolithic of Northern Asia: scientic papers published online by the Siberian Archaeological Herald

Humans in European Russian Arctic some 40,000 Years Ago: traces of humans found at Mamontovaya Kurya; more on the early people at the site and earliest humans in the Arctic and evidence early humans ate mammoth, reindeer, wild horses, plus the notched mammoth tusk

Humans in Eastern Siberian Arctic 30,000 Years Ago: traces of human tools, including spear foreshafts of rhinoceros horn and mammoth tusk, found on the Yana River 300 miles north of the Arctic Circle. Yana is between the Lena and Indigirka. Stone tools and animal bones also found.

Initial Upper Paleolithic in Northeast Asia: comparing tools from Siberia's Kara Bom site, 43,000 BP, to those of Mongolia, China [PDF]

Man & Mammoth in Pleistocene Siberia: including their distribution, other key animals, and the use of mammoth ivory

Paleolithic Sites of Northern Asia: map with sites located, not named, plus a listing of sites and dates

Paleolithic Sites of the Transbaikal: Studenoe-2, Tolbaga and Masterov Kluich dating back at least 30,000 BP, and sites around Lake Baikal

Paleolithic Japan - Mt. Yatsugatake: with microblades, cores 13,000 BP

Paleolithic Sakhalin Island & Kuriles: with the Okhotsk culture in the 1st millenium B.C., end of Paleolithic, and an illustrated chronology including the era when Sakhalin is connected to the mainland, the Ainu, more

Map of Eurasia including Siberia: including southern Asia for context

Map of Siberia in Last Ice Age: with human migration paths in Eurasia and into the New World, and complete site, Siberia: Land of Wonders

Radiocarbon Chronology of the Siberian Paleolithic: a synthesis, plus 14C dates of earliest Upper Paleolithic sites in Siberia and Russian Far East

Radiocarbon-based Chronology of the Paleolithic in Siberia [PDF]

Radiocarbon Dating Conversion Chart: 18,000 C14 years ago is calibrated to 21,000 real or calendar years ago; 11 date conversions shown

Rock Art in Russian Far East & Siberia: a window on ancient cultures, with footnotes or rock art without notes and cave art in Siberia

Tents of Ice Age Eurasia: conical tents from the Yukagir and Yakut to the Evenki or Tungus, Ket, Khanti, Nentsi, Chukchi and more, and   examples of tents from the Inuit in Siberia and North America

Transition in Northeast Asia Cultures about 10,000 BP: wedge-shaped microblade core technology ends at start of the Holocene warm period, and Sumnagin culture spreads from Tamyr to Chukotka

Paleolithic in Beringia, Kamchatka, Alaska   [ Top ]

Ancient Circumpolar World: with maps of Beringia and its ice shelves, productive hunting territory for early people moving from Siberia to Alaska

Beringia: description plus a map showing ancient archaeological sites and possible interior and coastal routes from Siberia to North America, and the complete site, Siberia: Land of Wonders

Beringia: Bering Land Bridge, definition, map, and more on Beringia, Ice Age region at Bering Strait between Siberia and Alaska, home to ancestors of the Chukchi, Siberian and American Eskimo peoples, and examples of stone tools from Beringia & Alaska including microblades

Common History of Development in Bering Sea Region: including parallels between Ushki Lake artifacts in Kamchatka and sites in Alaska

Experience Ice 
Age Alaska!

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People of the Wolf
(The First North Americans
Series - Book 1)

Discover all the
First North
Americans Books

Early People in Beringia 15,000 BP: linked to Siberia’s Diuktai Culture, with Ice Age lifeways, plus Beringian migration routes & Diuktai Cave

Dyuktai Culture Links Siberia & Alaska: includes discovery, artifacts, and more on Dyuktai in New World as well as stemmed points, Clovis, more

Mesa Site: points found at this 11,000 year old site in Alaska link early hunters here with Clovis people to the south; lanceolate points of the Mesa site, Mesa Site & Lime Hills discoveries and Mesa Site points

Northern Fluted Points: fluted points of Alaska and the Yukon - similar to Clovis points - with chronology, illustrations, distribution map, with a chart of Projectile Points of Northwestern Plains for comparison

Nenana & Denali Lithics in Alaska: archaeologists at Moose Creek find Nenana complex tools without microblades dated to 11,190 BP, later Denali complex with cores and microblades - many illustrations

Northwest Microblade Tradition & Denali Complex: distribution of microblade tools from Siberia across Alaska and the Yukon [PDF]

Overview of Alaskan Archaeology: early prehistory

Stone Tool Types & Periods: Beringia and Alaska's Tanana Valley

Paleolithic Culture Crosses Beringia: Asiatic-derived culture spread across Beringia into Alaska, Yukon with microblades,burins by 10,000 B.P.

Paleolithic Culture of Siberia - Dyuktai: page in Spanish, with map of important archaeological sites [click for translation tool]

Ushki Lake Sites in Kamchatka: Layer 7 with stemmed points but without microblades, dating to 14,000 BP, and Layer 6 dated to 10,700 BP with microblades, wedge-shaped microblade cores

Ushki Lake Projectile Point:  stemmed point found in layer 7, no wedge- shaped cores or microblades found in this layer

Ustinovka: site on river south of the Amur with wedge-shaped microblade cores at end of Paleolithic, with artifacts from Sokol site shown

Clink link to order A Legacy of Arctic Art
A Legacy
of Arctic Art

Clink link to order Drawing Shadows to Stone
Drawing Shadows
to Stone


Clink link to order Arctic Archaeology


Clink link to order Arctic Hunter


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Bones, Boats, and
Bison: Archeology &
First Colonization
of Western
North America


Clink link to order Ancient People of the Arctic
Ancient People
of the Arctic


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Ancient Encounters:
Kennewick Man and
the First Americans


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from Genetics

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Chukchi, Their
Neighbors &


Peopling of the Americas  [ Top ]

Ancient Circumpolar World: with maps of Beringia and its ice shelves, productive hunting territory for early people

Bering Strait & the Bering Land Bridge: Bering Strait disappears during Ice Ages

Eastern Siberia - Map: see the Chukchi Peninsula, Kamchatka Peninsula, Sakhalin Island and Alaska in relation to each other

Migration Routes to the New World: alternate theories on how early people migrated to North America, with animation of Canada's glaciers

Peopling of the American Continents: including possible coastal entry, supported by Arlington Springs Woman with a 13,000 14C-date, and more on coastal entry to New World 12,000 years ago.

Experience Ice 
Age California!

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People of the Sea
(The First North
Series - Book 5)

Discover all the
First North
Americans Books

People of Yukon's Bluefish Caves: with microblade cores, microblades similar to Siberia's Dyuktai culture, dated to 10,000 BP or older

Peopling of the Americas: two migrations from Siberia, Alaska's Denali complex related to Siberia's Dyuktai complex, plus the Nenana complex

Peopling of the Aleutians:  site's microblades link Anangula to Alaskan Paleoarctic and Siberian Dyuktai traditions; fine example of wedge-shaped core and microblade shown

Paleoamerican Origins:  evidence of the first Americans, their relationship with Eurasian people, timing and number of migrations, likely routes, and a detailed look at Paleoamericans and the peopling of the New World

Paleoindian Origins & Stone Tool Types:  early sites in Western US have Western Stemmed Point assemblages, in addition to Clovis points and other types, suggesting coastal entry into the New World

Mystery of the First Americans: likelihood of multiple migrations into the Americas, some even before Clovis culture, including people using stemmed points, and ancient Kennewick Man introduced by Jim Chatters [NOVA]

Puzzle of the First Americans: a report from Discovering Archaeology, looking at the early entry and late entry models for Paleoindians, and a look at ancient fiber and wood artifacts and women's hunting role

Trek of the First Americans: what archaeology, languages tell us

Two Migrations to New World: first people crossed the Bering Land Bridge 15,000 BP; Inuit, Aleut, Na-Dene came 5,000 BP; late-Pleistocene humans still lived across northern fringe of Europe and Asia, ancestors of the first migrants to North America, who are closely linked to the Jomon, Ainu, and more on New World colonization models

Who Were the First Americas? from Scientific American

Penon Woman found in Mexico: 13,00 years old

Mammoth Trumpet Archives:  news of early Americans, connections with Asia and Siberia, from the Center for the Study of the First Americans

Monte Verde Site - Chile: early site in South America - predating Clovis culture - creates new questions on the peopling of the Americas, and more on this influential early site

Native Peoples of Canada:  including ancient links to Beringia, Asia
· Paleoarctic or Beringian Tradition: a culture linking Siberia, Alaska
   and the Yukon as early as 13,000-10,000 BP
· Early Paleo-Eskimo Cultures: culture dated to 2,500 BC in Canada,
   with origins rooted in cultures of Neolithic northeastern Siberia
Middle Paleo-Eskimo or Dorset Culture: 1,000 B.C. to 500 A.D., an
   era of reduced caribou hunting, increased marine mammal hunting

Eskimo Peoples of North America: including archaeology, history, and a look at the Inuit of Canada and ancestors, the Dorset and Thule people

Paleo-Eskimo & Dorset & Thule & Dene: native peoples - northern Canada

ShamansCoat.jpg (4747 bytes)
The Shaman's Coat:
A Native History
of Siberia

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East of the Sun: The
Epic Conquest and Tragic
History of Siberia


Clink link to order A History of the Peoples of Siberia
History of the Peoples of
Siberia: Russia's North Asian Colony 1581-1990


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Shamanic Worlds:
Rituals and Lore of
Siberia and Central Asia


Clink link to order Alaska 1899
Alaska 1899

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