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Overview | Genetics in Siberia | Female Lineages | Male Lineages | More

The Chukchi people are the native Siberians of the Chukchi Peninsula, also called Chukotka, the far northeast corner of Siberia. Chukotka is region of Asia separated from Alaska at the Bering Strait. The Chukchi are both coastal hunters of sea mammals and interior reindeer breeders and herders. Dogs played a role in the historic cultures of both groups.

Who are the Chukchi?   Here are resources from recent genetic research on the native peoples of Siberia and the Americas, useful in finding the answers.

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Raven and the Rock:
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A History of the Peoples of Siberia


Overview of the Chukchi & the People of Siberia   [ Top ]

Chukchi & Their Neighbors:  An in-depth guide to online information from

Crossroads of Continents: Siberia & Alaska: An exhibit on the Chukchi, Koryak, Even, Amur River people in Siberia, Eskimo, Aleut, more

Indigenous People of Siberia & Russian Far East: Even, Evenk, Sami, Yukagir, more, with map showing homelands Exploration of the history, language, culture of Koryaks, Chukchi's neighbors to the south on Kamchatka Peninsula

Native Folks of Siberia: Photographs of the Chukchi of Northeast Siberia, and the Ainu, Itelmen and Nivkh of Kamchatka and the Lower Amur River region, with photos of Itelmen sled dogs

People of Siberia: Insights on 14 native peoples of northern Siberia from the Chukchi and Koryak to Samoyed peoples, with map and photos, and more on the role of wild and domestic reindeer in their lives

Peoples of the Russian North and Far East:  Resources about the North Pacific peoples including the Chukchi, Koryak, Evenki and more

Red Book of the Peoples of the Russian Empire: Info on 85 peoples of Russia and Siberia, Chukchi, Koryak, Itelmen, Eskimo, Yukagir, Evenks

Genetics of Arctic & Asian People   [ Top ]

Genetic Marker links Chukchi & Koryak to peoples of the Americas from Alaska to the tip of Chile and to the Inuit and the native peoples of Greenland, with map 2009

Genetic links in mtDNA & Y DNA connect the Chukchi, Koryak and other northeast Siberian people to America's indigenous peoples, and map of mtDNA links across Beringia

DNA and the Peopling of Siberia: Researchers are using genetic patterns in native peoples in Asia and the Americans to learn when they migrated and how they are related, using mtDNA and Y chromosome data

DNA, Siberia & the New World: Brief look at what DNA can tell us about the peoples of Siberia and the New World, including Chukchi

DNA & Native American Origins: Geneticist Douglas Wallace's discovery of mitochondrial DNA patterns of Native Americans, plus more articles on mtDNA groups A, B, C and D in Siberia, eastern Asia, the New World

Ancient DNA and Modern DNA provide clues to human ancestors in Africa, Asia, Europe, Australia and the New World

Molecular Genetic Diversity in Siberians and Native Americans Suggests an Early Colonization of the New World [MS Word document - to open, copy and paste this URL in a Web browser:
>Theodore G. Schurr, Southwest Foundation for Biomedical Research 

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The Seven
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Ancient Encounters:
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American Beginnings:
The Prehistory and
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The Chukchi &
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Eskimo People of
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East of the Sun:
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Female Lineages/mtDNA - Siberia   [ Top ]

Four Key Female Lineages Charted:   Genetic lineages A, B, C and D -- based on studies of mitochondrial DNA -- are found in Native Americans and selected Asians including the Chukchi. Chart further explained.

mtDNA Diversity in Chukchi and Siberian Eskimos: Implications for the Genetic History of Ancient Beringia and the Peopling of the New World
>Yelena B. Starikovskaya,
Am. Journal of Human Genetics., 63:1473-1491, 1998

Diversity and Age of the Four Major mtDNA Haplogroups, and their Implications for the Peopling of the New World
>Sandro L. Bonatto, et al.,
Am. Journal of Human Genetics, 61:1413-1423, 1997

mtDNA variation of aboriginal Siberians reveals distinct genetic affinities with Native Americans:  Migration from Siberia to Americas 17,000-34,000 bp
>A. Torroni et al.,
American Journal of Human Genetics, 53(3):591-608, 1993

Aleut mtDNA - Distinctive Pattern: Aleuts sampled were 71% D and 29% A, unique among all Native Americans with such high percentage of the D lineage. Study also found genetic links among Aleuts, Chukchi and Siberian Eskimo.
>Rohina Rubicz, University of Kansas

Kennewick Man - First Americans - Ancient Beringian Populations:  Ancient people of Beringia expanded as Eskimo, Na-Dena with mtDNA lineage A

Koryaks of Kamchatka have three of four mtDNAs seen in northern Asians, Native Americans (A, C, D), but most Koryak mtDNAs in lineages G and X.  Group G is uncommon in Reindeer Chukchi, rare in Coast Chukchi.
>Rem I. Sukernik et al., 
Institute of Cytology and Genetics

Mitochondrial Variation in Human Evolution:  Central Asian mtDNA lineages moved to Northeast Asia, then North America, several times. "Modified haplogroup A mtDNAs migrated from the Chukotka pennisula about 9,000 YBP to yield the Na-Dene of northwest North America.  More recent movements of haplogroups A and D resulted in the Eskimos and Aleuts."
>Douglas C. Wallace,
UCalifornia Irvine, 3rd International Meeting on SNP

mtDNA Variation among Greenland Eskimos: The Edge of the Beringian Expansion: Siberian and Greenland ancestral mtDNA is related
>Juliette Saillard, et al., American Journal of Human Genetics, 67:718-726, 2000

Siberian population of the New Stone age: mtDNA haplotype diversity in the
ancient population from Ust'-Ida burial ground, dated 4020-3210 BC by 14C

>O.Y. Naumova et al.,
Vavilov Institute of General Genetics, Moscow, Russia

Male Lineages/Y Chromosomes - Siberia   [ Top ]

Dual Origin and Siberian Affinities of Native American Y Chromosomes
Siberian Y chromosomes fall in two major groups, with 57% belonging to haplogroups delineated by the ancient M89 polymorphism
>J.T. Lell, et. al.,
American Journal of Human Genetics, 70:192-206, 2002

Theodore Schurr Explains the Dual Origin Theory:  A co-author of the above paper clarifies the ideas in the paper, explains haplotypes, haplogroups, lineages.

Y Chromosome Haplotypes Reveal Distinct Migration Patterns in Siberia and the Americas (abstract)
>J.T. Lell, et. al.,
American Society of Human Genetics, 1999

Y Chromosome polymorphisms in Native American and Siberian populations: identification of Native American Y chromosome haplotypes
>J.T. Lell, et. al.,
Human Genetics, 100:536-5431997

Ancestral Asian Source(s) of New World Y Chromosome Founder Haplotypes: one or more migrations from Lake Baikal region envisioned
>T.M. Karafet, American Journal of Human Genetics, 64:817-831, 1999

The Central Siberian Origin for Native American Y Chromosomes
>F. Santos et. al., 
American Journal of Human Genetics, 64:619-628, 1999

The Eurasian Heartland: A continental perspective Y chromosome diversity
haplotype frequencies including M45, M173 and M17
>R. Spencer Wells et al.,
PNAS, Vol. 98 No. 18, August 28, 2001

Y Chromosome DNA Change 242:  This genetic variant suggests a date of 18,000 years ago for first migration into the Americas, with the M3 variant showing the link even today between Northeast Siberian and Alaskan native men. And more on this mutation or change, M242, that arose after M45 but before M3 [PDF]

Use of Y Chromosome Variation to Study Populations and their Migrations:
DYS199 C=>T found in Native Americans, also Chukchi, Siberian Eskimo
>Sue Malcolm, Editor, Clinical Molecular Genetics Society,  2001

Genetic history of native Siberians as recorded in their mitochondrial and nuclear DNA's:   M9/M3 and M9/Tat-C found in Chukchi, Siberian Eskimo
>J. Klein, S. Kurbatskaya, A. Torroni, R. Sukernik,
INTAS. 1997

Tat-C Variant of Y Chromosome in Finno-Ugric Speaking People [PDF]
>M. Raitio et. al.,
Genome Research, 11:471-482, 2001

Tat-C Lineage: Resources on the Y-chromosome lineage that originated in Central Asia and spread to the north with male migrations over the last 4000 years, including percentages of this lineage in 26 Eurasian peoples including Chukchi

The Genetic Legacy of Paleolithic Homo sapiens sapiens in Extant Europeans:  a Y Chromosome Perspective
>Ornella Semino et al.,
Science, Vol. 290, November 10, 2000

A synopsis of the entire European Y-chromosome bialletic haplotype
spectrum (abstract):
key markers M9, M17, M26, M35, M170, M172, M173
>G. Passarino, O. Semino, A.S. Santachiara Benerecetti, L.L. Cavalli Sforza, P.A. Underhill, American Society of Human Genetics, 1999

The phylogeography of Y chromosome binary haplotypes and the origins of modern human populations [PDF]
>P.A. Underhill et al.,
Annals of Human Genetics, 65:43-62, 2001

African Origin of Modern Humans in East Asia: A Tale of 12,000 Y Chromosomes [PDF]: includes Chukchi, Koryak, Siberian Eskimo
>Yuehei Ke et al.,
Science, Vol. 292, May 11, 2001

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The Shaman's Coat:
A Native History
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Mapping Human History:
Discovering the Past
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Genetics and the
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The History and
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Sacred Hunt: A Portrait of the
Relationship between
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Origins of Native Americans: Evidence
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The Native People
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Clovis Revisited:
New Perspectives
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ative American Genetics & Migrations  [ Top ]

Origin and evolution of Native American mtDNA variation: a reappraisal:   one migration brought ancestors of the Amerinds from northeastern Siberia to America 20,000-25,000 years ago while an expansion of peoples in Beringia 11,300 years ago were the ancestors to present Eskimo and Na-Dene populations
>P. Forster, R. Harding, A. Torroni, H.J. Bandelt.

Genetic signatures of migrations and population replacements during human colonization of the North American Arctic:   ancient mtDNA studies show Dorset peoples of D lineage, Thule and modern Inuit of A
>M.G. Hayes, D.H. O'Rourke,
American Society of Human Genetics, 2001

Paleogenetic Assessment of Human Migration and Population Replacement in North American Arctic Prehistory: more on Dorset, Thule, Aleut mtDNA
>M.G. Hayes,
J.B. Coltrain, D.H. O'Rourke, 14th ARCUS Meeting, 2002

"Ice Person" Found on Canadian Glacier was of mtDNA Lineage A:
500-year-old human remains found on glacier in Canada's Tatshenshini Park
>M. Victoria Monsolve et al., University of British Columbia

Mitochondrial Genome Diversity of Native Americans Supports a Single Early Entry of Founder Populations into America [PDF]:
>Wilson A. Silva Jr., et al., M. Ra

mtDNA Variation among Greenland Eskimo:  genetics show that modern Greenland Eskimo descend from Alaskan Eskimo people
>J. Saillard, P. Forster, N. Lynnerup, H.J. Bandelt , S. Norby.

The Paleoamericans: Evidence and Issues Relating to the Peopling of the New World: articulate review of archaeological and biological evidence
>James Q. Jacobs, published online 2001

Paleoamerican Origins: A Review of Hypotheses and Evidence Relating to the Origins of the First Americans: fine review of migration hypotheses
>James Q. Jacobs, published online 2002

More Human Genetics Resources [ Top ]

American Journal of Human Genetics:  many research articles on human genetic patterns and migrations, including Siberia, available online

Ancient Genome Encyclopedia: ancient DNA database, maintained in Japan

DNA from the Beginning:  introduction to genetics. Click on No. 30 for an introduction to mitochondria, the source of mtDNA

Human Population Genetics Laboratory Publications: major scientific articles by Stanford University researchers and collaborators, 1994-2002

Humans Evolved for Warmth or Work:   mtDNA variations may help people adapt to warm tropics, frigid Arctic conditions  PDF version of full paper

Mammoth Trumpet:  research news on early Americans, connections with Asia and Siberia, from Center for the Study of the First Americans

Map of Human mtDNA & Y Chromosome Lineage Migrations: maternal and paternal lineages shown out of Africa into Asia, Europe, the Americas

Map of Human mtDNA Migrations [PDF]: maternal lineages, including A, B, C, D and G, shown moving out of Africa into Asia, Europe, the Americas

Mitochondrial DNA Sequence Variation: introduction to haplogroups, haplotypes and genetic lineages of the various continents

Mitochondrial References: "Big List" of research articles, more, including Siberia and the New World

Scientific Journals on Evolution Studies

Why Study the Y Chromosome? understanding male lineages

Y Chromosome Consortium:  tree of male lineages

Y chromosome sequence variation & the history of human populations [PDF]

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