GO TO: Overview | mtDNA
Haplogroups | Haplogroup U & U5 | Maps
Understanding haplogroups is a key to applying genetics to family history. Has charts
describing many of the maternal or mtDNA haplogroups and paternal or Y DNA haplogroups.
OVERVIEW [ Top ]
Adam and Eve of Genetics: mtDNA and Y DNA reveals quite a bit about evolution
and families [click on Enter Salon to view].
Anthropology including ancestry and ancient human migrations, with frequently
asked questions, answers
[ Top ]
Haplogroups around the world, with map
of mtDNA haplogroups with links
Europe's seven maternal
lineages, the oldest being U -- dated to 45,000 years ago and called Ursula,
the Latin for she-bear
PLOS ONE: The Peopling of Europe from the Mitochondrial Haplogroup U5
Perspective. Explore U5 and
its subhaplogroups U5a and U5b
Ancient Eurasian DNA
- chart with archaeological sites with mtDNA and Y DNA found, country and approximate
date. Includes sites in Germany, Italy, Russia, Morocco and more.
Neolithic Invasion of Europe -- genetics show the contribution of Near
Eastern lineages to the gene pool of modern Europeans is about a quarter of the
population, much less than once thought.
first farmers were "experienced outsiders who arrived... around 5500
B.C. with animals in tow" and seldom mated with the exisiting hunter-gathers, new
genetic research shows
Sykes, his book on the Seven Daughters of Eve
-- the female ancestors of Europeans -- and his firm Oxford Ancestors
Bryan Sykes interviewed by New
York Times, The
HAPLOGROUP U and Subgroup
U5 [ Top ]
|Haplogroup U is
very old, has subgroups including U5,
and is considered to be the oldest human mtDNA in Europe
U is very large, and can be considered a super haplogroup
Man, Britain's oldest complete skeleton, some 9,000 years old, has Haplogroup
the age of Haplogroup U is determined -- as discussed in a book called
Saxons, Vikings, and Celts, by Bryan Sykes,
author of The Seven Daughters of Eve
The Genetic Roots of
Britain and Ireland
Saxons, Vikings, Celts
U5 -- considered to be the first Haplogroup U subgroup to enter Europe -- is
most closely aligned with Sykes' Ursula
at World Families Forums, varied postings including a discussion that the origin of U5 is
was Ursula? - the clan mother of 45,000 years ago
Project -- Haplogroup U includes U1-U7 and K. U5, with its sublineages, is said to be the
oldest European-specific haplogroup. See genetic tree of haplogroup lineages.
mtDNA Haplogroup U5 Project
-- listing of more than 400 matriarchs with maternal pedigrees, with ancestors traced to
Austria, British Isles, Finland, Germany, Norway, Poland, Spain, USA
U5 mtDNA as
found today in Europe, including Scandinavia, Northern Germany and the British Isles, and U5 mtDNA
as defined by geneticists
HAPLOGROUP U Subgroup U5b
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U5a and U5b are often found in peoples of far northern Europe, and their
ancestors are thought to have been among the peoples who migrated north as the glaciers
melted at the end of the last Ice Age.
mtDNA sublineage is found throughout western and central Europe, is
considered part of the original European populations, and also is associated with far
mtDNA found in ancient samples that are Medieval Anglo-Saxon, Ancient German
[Saxony, 3,000 and 4,600 years ago, including one from Eulau Corded Ware Culture), and
Danish Viking [u5b1].
and U5b2 are common subhaplogroups among people of Denmark, the country just
north of Schleswig-Holstein, Germany.
of U5b with specific differences from the Cambridge Reference Sequence or CRS
shown. The ancestry is for a woman born in Haderslev Amt,
area considered South Jutland / North Schleswig.
Project with definitions, origin, distribution, and how to participate.
HAPLOGROUP U and Subgroup U4
[ Top ]
Haplogroup Blog: U5 and U4 were dominant among hunter- gatherers in Central
and northern Europe, with the oldest known dating back to 13,400 BC at Hohler Fels, in
Germany. Blog for U4 folks.
RESEARCH RESOURCES [ Top ]
recolonization of Europe by modern humans: a signal from mtDNA haplogroup
U," asserting that U5 is one of the largest western Eurasian maternal lineage clades.
the Mitochondrial Subhaplogroup U4 in the Populations of Eastern Europe,
Ural, and Western Siberia"
Genographic Project Public Participation Mitochondrial DNA Database - based
on 78,590 mtDNA samples and an interview with Spencer
Wells, who heads the project
Variation in Europe: excerpt of a narrated slide talk by genetics
professor Antonio Torroni, Pavia University, Italy, and more human
genetic diversity talks, including by Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza, Stanford
University. See all talks on human population
genetics [be sure to click the down arrows to show all the topics, experts].
MORE RESOURCES: To learn more about scientific discoveries about human migrations and
populations, use our Web guide -- with links to Web sites and research papers: Paleolithic of
Eurasia and Alaska.